Fire overview many problems found in fire control

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This paper summarizes many problems found in the fire inspection and acceptance of high-rise buildings

Abstract: This paper summarizes some problems found in the fire inspection and acceptance of high-rise buildings under the jurisdiction of the national defense Bureau in Beijing in recent years, but the problem of excess production capacity still exists. And briefly describes the relevant specifications

key words: Untitled Document discussion on the issues emerging from the fire certification of high buildings Liu Hong Shan, Zhu yongabstract:this paper discusses the issues emerging from the fire certification of high buildings under the jurisdiction of Beijing City Fire Department, and briefly describes the correspondingprescriptive requirements specified in fire codes. Keywords: high building, fire certification fire acceptance is divided into three acceptance forms: concealed works fire acceptance, rough decoration fire acceptance, and fine decoration fire acceptance. l. Fire control acceptance of concealed works: after the building is put into use. Fire fighting facilities and fire-resistant components that cannot be inspected and accepted. Fire control acceptance during the construction phase. For example, fire protection spraying and fire protection of steel structures are less affected by constant extension stress (generally ignored), pipelines and connections, etc. 2. Rough decoration fire control acceptance: functional acceptance of fire control system and facilities in the building. The fire protection system and facilities have been installed and debugged. However, the construction project of interior decoration has not been carried out. It is applicable to the construction of the main body of the building. Acceptance of fire protection system of buildings before renting and selling. After the rough decoration fire control acceptance is qualified, the building is not ready for use, and the fine decoration fire control review and acceptance must be further completed before it can be put into use. 3. Fire control acceptance of fine decoration: fire control acceptance before the building is fully completed and ready for use. The acceptance of building fire protection mainly checks whether the following parts meet the requirements of the specification: (1) the general layout of the building and the internal layout of the building (including the settings of fire control room, fire pump room, etc.); (2) Partition of fire and smoke prevention zones of buildings; (3) Interior decoration materials of buildings; (4) Safety evacuation and fire elevator; (5) Fire water supply and outdoor hydrant system; (6) Indoor fire hydrant system of the building; (7) Automatic sprinkler system; (8) Automatic fire alarm and linkage system (including fire emergency broadcast and fire communication system); (9) Smoke control and smoke exhaust system (including the fire-fighting function setting of air conditioning and ventilation system); (10) Gas fire extinguishing system; (11) Fire power supply and its distribution (including fire emergency lighting and evacuation indication sign system); (12) Fire extinguisher configuration, etc. In recent years. When the Beijing Municipal Fire Bureau conducts the fire control acceptance of the high-rise buildings under its jurisdiction. Many practical problems have been found. Among them, some are improper architectural design; Some of them continue to use the old standard terms and do not adapt to the new standard requirements; Some owners change the design without authorization; Some are construction, so the system has high accuracy and installation errors; others are the rapid construction progress of the project, etc. When discussing each problem, this paper simply quotes the relevant specification requirements and necessary instructions, which may not be complete and comprehensive, but only for reference. For problems obviously belonging to system equipment commissioning. For example, the smoke exhaust outlet and smoke exhaust fan cannot be linked; When the smoke exhaust fire damper is manually closed (pulled). The smoke exhaust fan cannot be shut down; During the end drainage test. The drenching pump cannot be started in linkage; After the fusible alloy is burned (broken) artificially, the fire shutter cannot fall; The evacuation indicator light of the emergency exit is not on. It will not be discussed here for the time being. Question 1. The civil air defense door in the front room of the basement elevator replaces the fire door. How is the progress of the basement project in high-rise buildings? The hull of the sample ship is almost finished. Some floors are civil air defense projects, and civil air defense doors are set. It is a thick cement door, which is difficult to open and close. During the acceptance, it was found that the civil air defense door in the basement was replaced by the fire door. The civil air defense door in the elevator front room of the basement replaces the fire door, resulting in no front room in the civil air defense layer. The former civil air defense door can be defaulted to replace the fire door, but it is not allowed after the modification of the current civil air defense specification. This is a traditional problem encountered in construction review and fire acceptance. Civil air defense specifications require that civil air defense doors cannot replace fire doors. The rectification measure is to install a fire door in front of the civil air defense door. Problem 2. The fire doors and fire locks with reverse opening direction are not opened to the outside on the first floor, and the fire doors on other floors are not opened to the first floor. The fire door shall be a side hung door that opens in the direction of evacuation and can be manually opened from either side after being closed. The fire doors of walkways, staircases and antechambers used for evacuation shall have the function of self closing. Double leaf and multi leaf fire doors shall have the function of closing in sequence. Normally open fire doors. In case of fire, it shall have the function of self closing and signal feedback. Problem 3. Fire doors are equipped with door stops. Some use bolts. Some use magnet door suction. Fire doors in walkways, staircases and antechambers for evacuation should have the function of self closing. Namely. Fire doors (except normally open fire doors) are not allowed to have door stops. With magnet door suction, the fire door cannot be closed by itself; Use pins. The fire door cannot be opened manually from either side. Question 4. The stairs sharing stairs are on the first floor. The basement or semi basement should not share staircases with the upper floor without using fire doors to separate them from the basement. When it is necessary to share the staircase, it should be at the entrance and exit of the first floor and the underground or semi underground floor. A partition wall with a fire endurance of not less than 2 hours shall be set to separate it from the class B fire door. And there should be obvious signs. The original clause used "not suitable". In the 2001 edition, it was changed to "should not", which must be implemented as a mandatory provision. Question 5. Once the flat fire door next to the fire curtain is cancelled or locked with a lock, once the past fire shutter falls. It cannot be used for evacuation. Add flush fire doors. It ensures escape and evacuation from both sides. This is a regulation drawn from the lessons of the Karamay fire in Xinjiang. Question 6. A shutter is added to the fire door of the water pump room. The pump room is a leitong door, and the pump room has leitong windows that open to other parts. The equipment room, ventilation and air conditioning room of the automatic fire extinguishing system in the high-rise building should adopt a partition wall with a fire resistance limit of not less than 2 hours, and the 1.5-hour floor slab and class a fire door should be separated from other parts. The door of the fire pump room in the high-rise building shall be a class a fire door with a fire resistance limit of 1.2 hours. The pump room shall adopt class a fire doors, and if there are windows opening to other parts in the pump room. The windows shall be class a anti-corrosion

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