Fire prevention and rescue of the hottest high-ris

2022-08-24
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Fire prevention and rescue of high-rise buildings

CCTV new site park is under construction. Do you think you can try it? A fire broke out on the building site at 20:27 on February 9, 2009, covering an area of more than 100000 square meters. The atrium of more than a dozen houses in the building collapsed, and various facilities about to be put into use were also damaged. This incident has aroused widespread concern throughout the country, and people coincidentally thought of a serious topic: how to prevent and fight the fire of high-rise buildings in advance of export growth

causes of fire in high-rise buildings

General principles for the design of civil buildings stipulates that buildings higher than 24 meters or more than 10 floors belong to high-rise buildings, and buildings higher than 100 meters belong to super high-rise buildings. The internal structure of high-rise buildings is more complex than ordinary buildings because of their high floors, and the causes of fire are also diverse

first of all, there are many conductors in high-rise buildings, and the laying is centralized and hidden, and the power lines operate at high loads. There are many electric equipment installed in high-rise buildings, especially in modern intelligent buildings, where there are many wire and cable connection points and the laying of wiring channels are centralized. When electrical and electronic equipment operates for a long time, the total power of electricity consumption will increase significantly, making wires and cables continue to be at high temperature, accelerating the aging or damage of wire connection points and insulation, and eventually leading to short circuit of wires, fire, burning of electric meters, and fire. For example, the catastrophic fire in Wenfu building, a commercial and residential building on the 28th floor in the center of Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, on December 12, 2007 was caused by the short circuit of the lighting line in the ceiling of the "flower shop" in which "flowers are not sure to drop their cost and money are fresh"

secondly, high-rise buildings have many decoration materials and poor fire protection performance. The decoration area of high-rise buildings is large, and there are many kinds of decoration materials used. Due to the large number of manufacturers and uneven quality of decoration materials, the fire prevention performance of materials is inevitably mixed. The amount of decoration materials for columns, top beams, walls and ceilings of high-rise buildings is huge. If materials with low fire resistance are selected, the fire source is very easy to cause fire. In addition, materials with good fire resistance are usually expensive. In order to save costs or lack fire safety awareness, decoration units often privately use some cheap non fire resistant and non fire retardant decoration materials such as wood strips and wall blankets that have not been flame retardant treated. The existence of a large number of combustibles in the room has reduced the fire resistance rating of the house and buried fire hazards for high-rise buildings. On October 9, 2008, the fire of "360 degrees longitude and latitude" in the 28 storey high-rise building under construction in Harbin was caused by the illegal electric welding of welders, which ignited the decoration materials on the ceiling and led to the fire

in addition, residents in high-rise buildings use fire carelessly. With the rapid development of the city, there are more and more high-rise residential buildings, and many residents gather in high-rise buildings. Due to the uneven fire prevention awareness and quality of residents, one person's carelessness in life will affect everyone's safety. Statistics show that many high-rise building fires are caused by residents' negligence in using gas and fire. Because the kitchen is generally small in building area, dense in items, and frequent in using fire, the kitchen has become a place prone to family fires, and most of the high-rise fires are caused by the careless use of fire in the family kitchen, causing fires in oil pans, gas, liquefied gas, etc. during operation. For example, when fried food is used, the oil overflows too much, and a fire "breaks out" in case of an open fire of cooking utensils; When cooking, people leave the kitchen, causing food to scorch and catch fire, and igniting other items to cause a fire; The natural gas or liquefied gas in the home leaks and explodes or deflagrations in case of fire source. In this case, residents panicked or used the wrong fire-fighting methods, which often delayed the fire-fighting opportunity, leading to the spread of the fire. On March 16, 2007, the fire of Hongguang building, an 18 story building in Harbin, was caused by an open fire caused by a gas leak in the kitchen of residents

it is difficult to extinguish the fire in high-rise buildings

due to the characteristics of high-rise buildings, such as high floors, few upper and lower passages, many residents, difficult evacuation and so on, once a fire occurs, it is difficult to extinguish and there are many difficulties

first of all, the fire extinguishing devices in high-rise buildings are difficult to meet the fire fighting requirements. When a fire occurs in a high-rise building with a height of more than 100 meters, it is generally impossible to directly use the fire truck to pump water from the outdoor fire water source to the high-rise fire floor to fight the fire due to the pressure of the fire truck's water pump and the compressive strength of the water hose. Usually, it depends on the indoor fire-fighting facilities of the high-rise building to fight the fire. However, because the current development speed of urban high-rise buildings is not synchronized with the corresponding fire fighting technical support level, the fire-fighting facilities in high-rise buildings can not meet the fire-fighting requirements, especially in class II high-rise buildings, the fire hydrant system is still the main means of fire fighting. This system requires a large amount of fire water and high water pressure. When a fire occurs in a high-rise building, the water consumption is up to more than 80l/s, sometimes even more than 100l/s, and the actual water consumption of the fire site is far more than the designed fire water supply. At the initial stage of a fire, the fire hydrant system can be used to extinguish the fire, but once the fire spreads, the fire hydrant system is used to extinguish the fire, and the water volume and water pressure in the building are difficult to meet the requirements, which is the biggest difficulty in the fire suppression of high-rise buildings

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